The diverse environment of the Achumawi's territory provided for their every need. Their territory included a rich riparian environment consisting of Goose Lake, Medicine Lake, Eagle Lake, Pit River, Pine Creek, Burney Creek, Hat Creek, springs, swamps and wet meadows. The stream system winding over 150 miles of Achumawi territory provided them with a wide array of fish and shellfish. The elevation, consisting of over twenty-five mountain peaks and several lava flows from both ancient and more recent times, ranges from over ten thousand feet at the Mount Shasta summit to less than two thousand feet in the Pit River Canyon. Upland areas were covered with pine and fir trees, and at lower elevations sage brush and junipers. Swamps produced tule which was used as both food and building materials, and meadows offered a ready supply of herbs, grasses and foraging areas for deer and other game animals. The volcanic past has dotted the area with obsidian deposits supplying the Indians with a superior source of stone for tools (Olmstead and Stewart 225-230).
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