The Atsugé occupy the western section of the Atsugewi territory, "the heavily wooded area between Mount Lassen and the Pit river, particularly along Hat Creek" (Garth, Industriousness 337-338), hence the name Hat Creek Indians. During the harsh winters the Atsugé occupied villages between present-day Burney and Cassel; throughout the summers they ranged over the higher elevations of Black Butte and Mount Lassen (Kniffen 315). Their neighbors, the Apwaruge, inhabit the area to the east along Horse Creek, an area with fewer trees, but one rich in marsh resources (Garth, Industriousness 337-338). The Atsugewi have continuously inhabited this portion of Northern California for at least three to four thousand years (Moratto 459).
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