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The Penutian speaking Modoc, a more warlike people than the other Indian groups surrounding Mount Shasta, occupied a territory, for at least 7,000 years, that was more inhospitable than their western California neighbors. The three most important groups of Modocs were the Lower Klamath Lake people, gombatwa·s; the Lower Lost River people, ġoġewa·s; and the Tule Lake people, pasganwa·s (Stern 447). The Modoc have also been known as the Modok (Brandt and Davis-Kimball xvi).


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